A Country-by-country Guide to Europe's Reopening
Over a year after we saw border closures around the world, followed of course by canceled trips and many months of lockdown, the European Union agreed to welcome fully vaccinated foreign travelers Summer 2021.
With different COVID-19 variants circulating around the globe much of Europe has shifted their entry restrictions and many countries now only allow vaccinated travelers to enter. When planning a trip, it is important to check CDC travel recommendations for each country, as they can frequently change.
Here, we've outlined every country in Europe and its current reopening status — including entry requirements for foreign travelers.
Travelers aged 6 and older looking to enter Albania must satisfy one of the three requirements: submit a vaccine passport, have a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours (or a rapid antigen test taken within 48 hours) or provide documentation of recovery from COVID-19 in the past 6 months according to the U.S. Embassy in Albania.
There is a curfew in place — so movement is restricted from 11 p.m. to 6 a.m. In the meantime, Albania has reopened restaurants with outdoor seating and allowed beaches, cultural centers, and shops to reopen with social distancing guidelines.
To get to Andorra, visitors need to go through France or Spain, and therefore abide by the rules and regulations for those individual countries. To enter hotels, bars, restaurants, sporting events or most indoor places Andorra requires a vaccination card. To see the full list, including COVID-19 ski regulations visit the Andorra tourism site.
However, beyond complying with France and Spain's restrictions, there are no further entry requirements for coming to Andorra.
Austria is open to travel and there is no quarantine requirement for vaccinated travelers. A negative COVID-19 test is required for entry along with a vaccination certificate approved by the Austrian government, a rapid antigen test is not accepted.
Austria requires a vaccine card for entry into public indoor spaces for leisure activities such as going to restaurants, bars, and nightclubs. On the mountain, a vaccine card is required to ride in a chairlift, or cable car.
Vaccinated travelers from the U.S. are now allowed to enter Belgium. The United States is considered a "red zone" country and Americans will be required to show a negative PCR test taken 72 hours prior to arrival or a PCR test taken 24 hours prior.
Indoor shops, restaurants and bars are open in Belgium, and vaccine cards are becoming increasingly required to enter indoor public spaces.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Only vaccinated Americans can travel to Bosnia and Herzegovina, and must also present a negative PCR test for COVID-19 taken no more than 48 before arrival.
Other foreign travelers can also visit Bosnia and Herzegovina, but the only people exempt from testing prior to entry are BiH citizens and citizens of Croatia, Serbia, and Montenegro. Restaurants and most other businesses in the country are open with social distancing guidelines, and masks should be worn when social distancing is not possible, the embassy noted.
Bulgaria will now allow travelers from a number of countries, including Americans, citizens of the EU, and travelers from a number of eastern European and Asian countries. The United States is considered an "orange country", which allows Americans to enter Bulgaria.
Travelers must be able to show one of the following three things: "a vaccination certificate for a completed vaccination course against COVID-19," which is valid 14 days after the final vaccine dose; a PCR test that proves you have antibodies/immunity against COVID-19 from the last six months; or a negative PCR test for COVID-19 taken no more than 72 hours before entering the country.
Bulgaria has reopened restaurants, drinking establishments, and coffee shops. Mask wearing is mandatory indoors and when social distancing is not possible.
Croatia has reopened its borders to both EU and non-EU citizens for tourism, including U.S. citizens. Masks are required in all indoor spaces, and where maintaining social distance of 1.5 meters (approximately 5 feet) cannot be maintained.
Having implemented a traffic light entry system, EU or Schengen area countries on the "green list" are now "allowed entry into the Republic of Croatia under the same conditions as before the onset of the COVID-19 disease," according to the Croatian Ministry of Interior.
All other foreign travelers must show either a completed vaccination course, proof that they've recovered from COVID-19 in the last 180 days, or a negative PCR test for COVID-19 taken either 48 hours before arrival or taken immediately on arrival (with the understanding that they must quarantine until they get a negative result).
Travelers from the United States are now allowed to enter Cyprus. All travelers to Cyrpus must obtain a "flight pass" 48 hours prior to arrival. Travelers must present a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours of arrival, upon arrival there will be a rapid antigen test where all travelers regardless of vaccination status will be required to isolate until results are processed.
In Cyprus, malls, airports, seaports, and indoor sections of restaurants have reopened, according to the U.S. Embassy in Cyprus. Beaches have also been able to open.
The Czech Republic allows foreign travelers based on whether their countries are low, medium, or high risk — those countries are detailed by the Czech Republic Ministry of the Interior. All travelers will need a negative test to enter the country. Travelers do not need a vaccination card to enter, however, hotels, restaurants, and most indoor public spaces do require proof of vaccination to enter.
Denmark reopened to vaccinated foreign travelers. The vaccinated travelers must be from certain approved countries, including the U.S. and the United Kingdom and will be exempt from pre-arrival testing and quarantining upon arrival. Denmark accepts only EMA-approved vaccines.
Children who are not vaccinated but traveling with a parent, and women who are unvaccinated because they are pregnant or breastfeeding, can still visit Denmark but must take a COVID-19 test prior to entry.
Vaccinated travelers are welcome to enter Estonia for any reason and unvaccinated travelers may enter only if they fall under one of the following: work, family, schooling reasons, or with a special permit according to the U.S. Embassy in Estonia.
Estonia requires all unvaccinated travelers to quarantine. No COVID-19 test is necessary for vaccinated travelers.
Visitors from the U.S. may be able to enter Finland but will likely face issues entering indoor public spaces such as restaurants, bars, and tourist facilities due to the lack of an EU Digital COVID-19 certificate, The U.S. Embassy stated.
Non-vaccinated travelers from the U.S. are allowed to enter Finland for essential reasons only, and may need to take 2 tests upon arrival. Vaccinated travelers do not need to take a COVID-19 test. More information is available here.
France will now require all visitors from outside the European Union to provide proof of a negative PCR or antigen COVID-19 test taken within 48 hours of their planned arrival in addition to proof they've been vaccinated against COVID-19.
France also is requiring a negative COVID-19 test from European travelers, but those visiting from Europe will need to test within 24 hours of their journey to France. Beginning Dec. 15, the country will also require anyone who has received a one-shot Johnson & Johnson coronavirus vaccine to prove they've received a booster.
In the wake of the omicron variant France has blocked nonessential travel from the UK, according to the French Government.
According to the German Mission in the U.S.- Americans may enter Germany without any prior electronic entry registration. Proof of full vaccination or proof of full recovery for all persons over the age of 12 is required to enter Germany. Children under 12 years of age have to be accompanied by a fully vaccinated person.
Germany has also implemented a lockdown for unvaccinated citizens on according to The Associated Press.
Vaccinated travelers entering Greece do not need to present a negative COVID-19 test prior to arrival. All travelers entering Greece, regardless of vaccination status may be subject to a random health screening upon arrival.
All passengers have to fill out a Passenger Locator Form by 11:59 p.m. the day before they arrive in Greece.
While airports are open in Hungary, generally all non-essential travel from foreign countries is prohibited. In Hungary, restaurants, and cafes have reopened, as have museums, pools, and theaters, though only to those who can present vaccination records.
For larger events such as Christmas markets, sporting events or music festivals an immunity certificate is required.
Iceland reopened to vaccinated foreign travelers outside the Schengen area in April. Those who have recovered from COVID-19 and can prove they have antibodies are also allowed into the country without having to quarantine or take a PCR test.
Currently, Iceland has reopened several facilities, including swimming pools and bars, but many restrictions and capacity rules are in effect.
A negative COVID-19 PCR test is no required to enter Ireland for vaccinated travelers. Americans must show proof of their vaccination status when entering the country. Unvaccinated tourists are also welcome, but they must arrive with a negative COVID-19 test and self-quarantine for five days after entry.
Italy welcomes travelers from the United States who are either fully vaccinated or have recently contracted COVID-19 and recovered. Travelers also need to show proof of a negative COVID-19 test taken within 72 hours of arriving in the country, according to the National Tourist Board.
Foreign travelers are allowed to enter Kosovo but need a negative PCR test for COVID-19 taken no more than 72 hours before entry, according to the U.S. Embassy in Kosovo. If travelers do not have a negative PCR to show upon entry, they will have to quarantine for seven days.
Restaurants and bars in Kosovo are open until 10 p.m., and there's a curfew in place from 12:00 a.m. to 5 a.m. Kosovo's borders with Albania, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Serbia are open.
Vaccinated Americans may enter the country, unvaccinated Americans may only enter for essential purposes and will need to quarantine upon arrival. Latvia is open to the EU, EEA, Switzerland, and the U.K., according to the U.S. Embassy in Latvia. Those looking to get a COVID-19 test without symptoms (for travel purposes) will need to pay approximately $41 (37 euros).
Liechtenstein, a landlocked country, is accessible through Switzerland or Austria. Its border with Switzerland is currently open. Switzerland handles all immigration for Liechtenstein.
Vaccinated Americans may enter Lithuania, and do not need to present a PCR test upon arrival. According to the U.S. embassy in Lithuania, since there are no direct flights from the United States, it is the travelers responsibility to comply to all local regulations during layovers.
Vaccinated Americans may enter Luxembourg, according to the U.S. embassy. However, the CDC issued vaccine card is not authorized to allow entry into restaurants, bars or most indoor settings, therefore Americans may enter the country, but will have a difficult time in indoor settings. Only a Covid Check/ QR certificate will be allowed.
Moldova is now admitting American travelers, among other foreigners, as long as they are able to provide a vaccine certificate or a negative PCR test for COVID-19 taken no more than 72 hours before entry, according to the U.S. Embassy in Moldova. There are currently no movement restrictions or curfews in place.
To get to Monaco, most visitors have to travel through France. Anyone who enters Monaco, regardless of nationality, must be able to show a negative PCR test for COVID-19 taken 72 hours before entry.
Monaco no longer has a curfew.
Montenegro continually updates its list of countries from which visitors are allowed to enter, based on epidemiological data. American travelers are allowed to enter Montenegro at this time, with a negative PCR test.
The Dutch country closed all non-essential shops like restaurants and museums and will keep them shuttered through Jan. 14. All passengers entering from outside of the EU/Schengen zone will have to provide a negative COVID regardless of vaccination status.
Although official reentry protocol has not yet been discussed, previously American travelers could enter the Netherlands directly only if they are vaccinated or qualify for an EU Entry Ban Exemption Category, as well as transfer at Amsterdam Schiphol Airport, a major transportation hub in Europe. All travelers will need to present a negative COVID-19 test result within 48 hours of travel.
Travelers transferring at Schiphol Airport from high risk countries must present a negative COVID-19 test result and follow all transfer regulations available here.
North Macedonia is open to American travelers, who present either a vaccination card or a negative COVID-19 test taken 48 hours prior to arrival. Most indoor facilities must operate at a 50 percent capacity.
Norway has recently opened its borders to European countries that are designated as "yellow" or "green" areas. Currently, travelers from Iceland, Greenland, and the Faroe Islands can enter Norway without quarantining. According to Visit Norway, "Vaccinated persons will not be able to enter Norway before a Digital Green Certificate, or similar official vaccination certificate, are available."
Poland is now allowing travelers from specific countries who can show a negative test result for COVID-19 to skip their quarantine process. Countries from which travelers are allowed include European Union members, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland, Georgia, Japan, Canada, New Zealand, Thailand, South Korea, Tunisia, and Australia.
Vaccinated travelers do not need to quarantine in Poland. All travelers must have a negative COVID-19 test prior to entry taken within 24 hours of entering the country.
As of now, Americans and EU residents may enter Portugal for non-essential travel. Americans, regardless of vaccination status. must have prior authorization, a negative COVID-19 test within 72 hours, or a rapid test taken within 48 hours and a passenger locator card.
The Spain/Portugal land border is open, and there are no restrictions on inter-state travel within Portugal. Portugal is currently in a state of Calamity which allows the government to impose mandatory quarantine for individuals infected with COVID-19 and individuals deemed by health officials to require medical observation.
Americans so not need to present a negative COVID-19 test to enter Romania, but may be subject to quarantine.
Most indoor attractions remain closed in Romania, but hotels and campsites have reopened. Dining indoors is not available in many areas of Romania (and whether the indoor restaurants open depend on coronavirus statistics in specific areas). Masks must be worn in indoor and outdoor public spaces. Curfew in Romania is from 10 p.m. to 5 a.m.
Americans are able to travel into Russia, but only by plane. To enter, visitors need to be coming from an approved country (the U.S. is currently an approved country), obtain a Russian visa, have a negative PCR test within 72 hours of arrival and provide proof of residency outside of Russia. The Russian government advises on nonstop flights to avoid stopping in a country on the unapproved list.
San Marino is a landlocked country surrounded by Italy. Depending on where travelers in Italy came from, they may have to take a COVID-19 test or quarantine in order to enter San Marino.
Foreign travelers are welcome in Serbia, provided they can produce a negative COVID-19 PCR or rapid antigen test taken within 48 hours of arrival, according to the U.S. Embassy in Serbia. Shops, restaurants, cafes, and parks have reopened in Serbia, and masks are required indoors (and outdoors when social distancing is not an option).
Indoor facilities must be closed by 1:00 a.m., and indoor sports facilities must have a 30 percent capacity. Outdoor stadiums may have a 50 percent capacity.
Americans may enter Slovakia if they are vaccinated or meets other criteria outlined by the Slovakian ministry of the interior. Fully vaccinated travelers do not need a negative test to enter the country.
According to the U.S. Embassy in Slovakia, "Slovakia's pandemic control measures vary regionally based on its Traffic Light System, which automatically updates restrictions weekly based on local disease indicators."
Like a number of other European countries, Slovenia is using a color-coded system to determine who is currently allowed into the country. Those coming from "green" countries may enter with reduced restrictions. Travelers allowed into Slovenia must show a vaccination card, a negative PCR test, or COVID-19 antibodies that are less than six months old.
Vaccinated Americans can travel to Spain for nonessential travel, there is no negative COVID-19 test required, however, there are health screening procedures at places of entry. Passengers arriving to Spain from the U.S. will be required to create a health portal account and present a QR code upon arrival.
The most common restrictions in indoor settings are masks, limited capacity, and proof of vaccination to enter bars, restaurants or other indoor public venues.
A certificate including includes a negative COVID-19 test, and proof of vaccination or recovery from COVID-19.
Currently, there is a ban of visitors from outside the EU/EEA and Switzerland, to see the full list of approved countries, visit the Swedish Government page.
The Swiss Government recently stated that only those who have been vaccinated or have recovered from COVID-19 may enter indoor leisure sites such as restaurants, sporting venues, or cultural events.
Turkey is open to foreign travelers, who must test negative for COVID-19 via a PCR test within 72 hours of their flight.
There is no longer a curfew in place, and supermarkets and other food-related shops open during normal operational hours.
Ukraine is under an adaptive quarantine until Dec. 31, 2021. U.S. citizens are allowed to enter Ukraine, which lifted its ban on foreigners, as long as they show they have medical insurance to cover all potential expenses related to COVID-19, according to the U.S. Embassy in Ukraine. A CDC Vaccination card is an acceptable proof of vaccination.
U.S. citizens may be required to self-quarantine if the Ministry of Health considers the U.S. a country with a high incidence of COVID-19, the embassy noted. Most regions in Ukraine have reopened hotels, restaurants, coffee shops, and cultural institutions with certain restrictions, but it is mandatory to wear masks in public places.
Travelers heading to the United Kingdom will now need to present a negative COVID-19 test prior to entry, in addition to testing after arriving in the country, as the omicron variant continues to surface around the world. Travelers heading to the UK will still also have to take a COVID-19 PCR test by the second day of their trip — a protocol that went into effect Nov. 30. Visitors are required to pay for the second test and then isolate until there is a negative result.
The information in this article reflects that of the publishing time above. However, as statistics and information regarding coronavirus rapidly change, some figures may be different from when this story was originally posted. While we strive to keep our content as up to date as possible, we also recommend visiting sites like the CDC or websites of local health departments.