Travel Etiquette Dos and Don'ts

  • Photo: Dan Woodger

    1 of 23

    Follow T+L’s travel tips for how to cope with challenges on the road.

    From May 2014 By

    Any traveler knows that sinking feeling of boarding a plane only to get stuck with a less-than-desirable seatmate: someone who hogs that narrow, coveted armrest or brings an oversized duffel that encroaches on your legroom.

    If you’ve ever resorted to a passive-aggressive nudge or, on the contrary, suffered through hours of transatlantic claustrophobia, you have experienced firsthand what not to do in this scenario.

    It’s just one of the possible frustrations that you might encounter when you leave home. But how you react can make all the difference, whether you’re dealing with that seatmate, a reckless taxi driver, or a bad case of food poisoning.

    Knowing the dos and don’ts of travel etiquette will help you go from an amateur to a sophisticated globe-trotter. You’ll feel empowered to haggle at a market abroad and be informed about what to do if you get hotel bill shock.

    So before you wave your napkin to an inattentive waiter as a white flag of surrender, brush up on your etiquette with these strategic travel tips.

    —Melanie Lieberman

     

     

  • Travel Etiquette Dos and Don'ts: Lost Phone

    Photo: Ben Wiseman

    2 of 23

    What to Do if You Lost Your Phone

    Do...

    Try calling and tracking your device using a GPS-based app such as Apple’s Find My iPhone.

    Change the passwords for any accounts saved on your phone, from banking apps to social media.

    Don’t...

    Rack up a bill. Have your service provider freeze your service, so no one else can make calls or use your data.

    Forget to file an official stolen-goods report. Your mobile insurance plan may require it for reimbursement.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Dos and Don'ts: Avoid Food Poisoning

    Photo: Ben Wiseman

    3 of 23

    How to Avoid Food Poisoning While Eating Adventurously

    Do...

    Take cues from locals. Long lines are a good sign, and high turnover means that food doesn’t sit out and spoil.

    Snoop. Inspect prep stations for cleanliness. Raw foods should be stored separately; cold foods should be on ice.

    Don’t...

    Leave unprepared. Get a prescription for an antibiotic such as Zithromax, which can help with severe food poisoning.

    Forget about the water. Even ice cubes may be suspect. Look for bottled water with the seal intact.

    —Melanie Lieberman

  • Travel Etiquette Dos and Don'ts: Driving on the Left

    Photo: Ben Wiseman

    4 of 23

    How to Drive on the Left

    Do...

    Mind your left-hand mirror. It’s the one that usually gets clipped.

    Yield to oncoming cars when making a right-hand turn. Remember: you’re crossing traffic.

    Don’t...

    Skip the car insurance. Make sure you’ve got coverage. Most accidents involving foreign drivers arise from the drivers’ unfamiliarity with left-side driving.

    Forget to enter roundabouts going clockwise, and give priority to cars approaching from your right.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Dos and Don'ts: Overbooked Hotel

    Photo: Ben Wiseman

    5 of 23

    What to Do if Your Hotel is Overbooked

    Do...

    Plan ahead. Book directly with the hotel and confirm your reservation the night before.

    Ask to be comped for your first night (at least) if you are moved to another hotel. You may also get restaurant or spa credits.

    Don’t...

    Expect much. Hotels usually move guests to properties of equal or lesser value. Your hotel doesn’t want you too happy at the competition.

    Be late. If you think your hotel is overbooked, arrive early. The last guest typically loses out.

    —Melanie Lieberman

  • Travel Etiquette Dos and Don'ts: Cab Driver Ripping You Off

    Photo: Ben Wiseman

    6 of 23

    How to Avoid Being Rippped off by a Cab Driver

    Do...

    Know the estimated cost 
of your trip—and confirm it with the driver 
before you get in.

    Call your hotel or restaurant and ask someone to speak to your driver in his or her native language if it seems like you’re being taken for a ride.

    Don’t...

    Forget to note the medallion or license number and report the driver to the authorities if you suspect fraud.

    Pay with large bills, which invites the “I don’t have change” scam. Better to use small bills and coins in local currency.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: Missed Flight

    Photo: Ben Wiseman

    7 of 23

    What to Do if You Missed Your Flight

    Do...

    Be prepared to pay a rebooking fee. For most classes of ticket, you’ll be charged to get on another flight.

    Make a run for it, if you’re already checked in and only have a carry-on. At some airports, gates close as late as 15 minutes before departure.

    Don’t...

    Wait to alert your airline. The sooner you call, the more likely they’ll be able to get you on the next flight—if there’s space.

    Expect to be rebooked on a different carrier. For that, you’ll have to purchase an entirely new ticket.

    —Melanie Lieberman

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: Noisy Hotel Neighbors

    Photo: Peter Arkle

    8 of 23

    How to Cope With Noisy Hotel Neighbors

    Do...

    ...call the manager on duty. He can dispatch security. He’ll also know when your rowdy floor mates are checking out.

    ...ask for earplugs. Most hotels expect some type of noise pollution, be it from tropical birds, traffic, or a wailing toddler.

    Don’t

    ...take matters into your own hands. You want the hotel to be involved early on in case the culprit is uncooperative.

    ...demand that other guests move for your sake. If you want a quieter space, expect to switch rooms yourself.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: What to do When You Order Wine You Don't Like

    Photo: Matt Johnstone

    9 of 23

    What to Do When You Order Wine You Don't Like

    Do...

    ...speak up. A lot of customers feel intimidated by big wine lists and sommeliers, but it’s okay to trust your palate.

    ...snap a photo of the label and add it to an album of wines you’ve loved or loathed; use it to guide you on future selections.

    Don’t...

    ...judge too early. As the wine opens up, you might change your mind.

    ...suffer through a poor choice. The sommelier’s goal is for you to be happy with your selection.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: Aggressive Masseuse

    Photo: Peter Arkle

    10 of 23

    How to Cope With an Aggressive Masseuse

    Do...

    …lay down the law before the lights dim. Share your preferences, and if you’re ticklish or injured.

    …use body language. Raising your hand or finger tells your therapist to pause, and is less awkward than breaking the silence.

    Don’t...

    …leave things to chance. When booking, request a therapist with a lighter touch, or specify a gender.

    …be vague. Using a 1–10 scale will ensure the right pressure, e.g., 6 (moderate) rather than 9 (very intense).

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: Reckless Taxi Driver

    Photo: Russell Weekes

    11 of 23

    How to Cope With a Reckless Taxi Driver

    Do...

    …pay the fare. Your receipt may be helpful in reporting the driver. Tipping, however, is optional.

    …record the medallion or car number. Local authorities rely on passenger feedback to keep unsafe drivers off the streets.

    Don’t...

    …yell. Your driver is a professional. Phrase your complaint as a personal preference—not an attack.

    …stay in a cab if you feel unsafe. If your driver doesn’t respond to feedback, ask him to pull over and then find another ride.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: Overzealous Tour Member

    Photo: Larry Jost

    12 of 23

    How to Cope With an Overzealous Tour Member

    Do...

    …book trips where multiple guides are present at all times. One is there to handle special situations just like this.

    …talk to your guide, not to the traveler in question. Guides are trained to handle a variety of personalities.

    Don’t...

    …isolate the individual. That will only make him more likely to further monopolize your guide’s attention.

    …be too quick to judge. As the group dynamic shakes out, needy travelers tend to settle down.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: Space-Hogging Seatmate

    Photo: Tom Gauld

    13 of 23

    How to Cope With a Space-Hogging Seatmate

    Do...

    …assert your territory early on: claim your overhead and under-seat space, and put the armrests down.

    …be sensitive about passengers of size. Alert your flight attendant discreetly; you may be able to switch seats.

    Don’t...

    …resort to dirty looks, or subtle little pushes. Being passive-aggressive only escalates the problem.

    …be greedy. Airplane etiquette says that the middle-seat passenger has rights to both inner armrests.

    –Nikki Ekstein

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: Hotel Bill Shock

    Photo: Valero Doval

    14 of 23

    How to Deal with Hotel Bill Shock

    Do...

    …heed the warnings. If the hotel informed you of resort fees and the like, you share some of the blame.

    …play up your loyalty. Point out that you are a member of the hotel’s program, or a repeat customer.

    Don’t...

    …accept responsibility for fees buried in fine print. They should be clearly presented to guests.

    …be afraid to stand your ground. If the front desk can’t help, ask for the general manager or guest services director.

    —Amy Farley

  • illustration,silo,hand,pill,pill bottle,bottle

    Photo: Joanna Neborsky

    15 of 23

    How to Deal With Food Poisoning While Traveling

    Do...

    …ask the local pharmacist for a loperamide-based drug (like Imodium), to prevent dehydration.

    …seek medical attention if you experience signs of dehydration, such as dizziness or dry mouth.

    Don’t...

    …jump back to solid food. Start with electrolyte-fortified liquids (coconut water), then move on to rice and bananas.

    …kiss your entire vacation good-bye. Food poisoning usually subsides within two to four days.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: Make a Tight Flight Connection

    Photo: Paul Windle

    16 of 23

    How to Make a Tight Flight Connection

    Do...

    …ask to be moved closer to the front of the cabin just before landing, so you can make a quick exit.

    …run straight to the gate for your connection—even if it’s past your departure time.

    Don’t...

    …despair. A flight won’t wait for one passenger, but system-wide delays might result in a lucky break.

    …book tight connections through large airports. Anything less than a 90-minute window is unrealistic.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: Damaged Hotel Room

    Photo: Ben Wiseman

    17 of 23

    What to Do When You’ve Accidentally Damaged Your Hotel Room

    Do...

    …assess the mess. One that only requires cleanup costs less than one that calls for replacing broken furniture and fixtures.

    …fess up. The hotel will find out regardless—and you’ll want to be there to plead your case.

    Don’t...

    …fret if the damage is small and unintentional. Hotels will often let you go without penalty.

    …assume you can walk away scot-free. If the damage is major, you could be responsible for repairs and lost revenue.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: How to Photograph Locals

    Photo: Jasper Rietman

    18 of 23

    How to Photograph Locals Without Offending Them

    Do...

    …ask for permission. If words fail, show your camera and wait for a reaction before shooting.

    …strike up a conversation. Compliment the subject’s family, ask a question, or share a laugh.

    Don’t...

    …push too hard. If the subject says no, find someone else to photograph.

    …try to be sneaky. You risk affronting someone who’d rather not be photographed.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: Inattentive Waiter

    Photo: Ben Wiseman

    19 of 23

    How to Cope With an Inattentive Waiter

    Do...

    …get the attention of another waiter or waitress and ask for help tracking down your server.

    …ask for the manager. If you feel you are being ignored, it’s important to speak up.

    Don’t...

    …snap your fingers, wave your napkin in the air, or try to draw attention in any flagrant way.

    …assume it’s bad service. In some cultures it’s customary for guests to signal to waiters when they are ready for the check.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: How to Haggle

    Photo: Jennifer Daniel

    20 of 23

    How to Haggle

    Do...

    …determine what you’d like to pay. Ask trusted locals what they’d spend.

    …enjoy yourself. A sense of humor and patience are equally important.

    Don’t...

    …be afraid of lowballing. Make your starting offer at one-third of the price.

    …indicate how badly you want an item. Be willing to walk away, and you’ll almost always get a better deal.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: Snoring Seatmate

    Photo: Dan Woodger

    21 of 23

    How to Cope With a Snoring Seatmate

    Do...

    …ask for earplugs—most flight attendants will have them on hand.

    …rouse the snorer gently. A subtle trick: open an air vent.

    Don’t...

    …expect your flight attendant to wake anyone up. Each flier has the same right to rest.

    …feel trapped. If another seat is available, you may be able to move to a quieter spot.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: Pickpocketed

    Photo: Peter Arkle

    22 of 23

    What to Do When You’ve Been Pickpocketed

    Do...

    …find the nearest Western Union. You can get cash wired to you within the hour.

    …report a stolen passport to police and consular authorities; a replacement may be issued within 24 hours.

    Don’t...

    …expect a new bank or credit card to arrive immediately. It could take a few days to reach you abroad.

    …forget to cancel all cards immediately. Some card providers charge fees for fraudulent use.

    —Melanie Lieberman

  •  

    23 of 23

  • Any traveler knows that sinking feeling of boarding a plane only to get stuck with a less-than-desirable seatmate: someone who hogs that narrow, coveted armrest or brings an oversized duffel that encroaches on your legroom.

    If you’ve ever resorted to a passive-aggressive nudge or, on the contrary, suffered through hours of transatlantic claustrophobia, you have experienced firsthand what not to do in this scenario.

    It’s just one of the possible frustrations that you might encounter when you leave home. But how you react can make all the difference, whether you’re dealing with that seatmate, a reckless taxi driver, or a bad case of food poisoning.

    Knowing the dos and don’ts of travel etiquette will help you go from an amateur to a sophisticated globe-trotter. You’ll feel empowered to haggle at a market abroad and be informed about what to do if you get hotel bill shock.

    So before you wave your napkin to an inattentive waiter as a white flag of surrender, brush up on your etiquette with these strategic travel tips.

    —Melanie Lieberman

     

     

  • Travel Etiquette Dos and Don'ts: Lost Phone

    What to Do if You Lost Your Phone

    Do...

    Try calling and tracking your device using a GPS-based app such as Apple’s Find My iPhone.

    Change the passwords for any accounts saved on your phone, from banking apps to social media.

    Don’t...

    Rack up a bill. Have your service provider freeze your service, so no one else can make calls or use your data.

    Forget to file an official stolen-goods report. Your mobile insurance plan may require it for reimbursement.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Dos and Don'ts: Avoid Food Poisoning

    How to Avoid Food Poisoning While Eating Adventurously

    Do...

    Take cues from locals. Long lines are a good sign, and high turnover means that food doesn’t sit out and spoil.

    Snoop. Inspect prep stations for cleanliness. Raw foods should be stored separately; cold foods should be on ice.

    Don’t...

    Leave unprepared. Get a prescription for an antibiotic such as Zithromax, which can help with severe food poisoning.

    Forget about the water. Even ice cubes may be suspect. Look for bottled water with the seal intact.

    —Melanie Lieberman

  • Travel Etiquette Dos and Don'ts: Driving on the Left

    How to Drive on the Left

    Do...

    Mind your left-hand mirror. It’s the one that usually gets clipped.

    Yield to oncoming cars when making a right-hand turn. Remember: you’re crossing traffic.

    Don’t...

    Skip the car insurance. Make sure you’ve got coverage. Most accidents involving foreign drivers arise from the drivers’ unfamiliarity with left-side driving.

    Forget to enter roundabouts going clockwise, and give priority to cars approaching from your right.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Dos and Don'ts: Overbooked Hotel

    What to Do if Your Hotel is Overbooked

    Do...

    Plan ahead. Book directly with the hotel and confirm your reservation the night before.

    Ask to be comped for your first night (at least) if you are moved to another hotel. You may also get restaurant or spa credits.

    Don’t...

    Expect much. Hotels usually move guests to properties of equal or lesser value. Your hotel doesn’t want you too happy at the competition.

    Be late. If you think your hotel is overbooked, arrive early. The last guest typically loses out.

    —Melanie Lieberman

  • Travel Etiquette Dos and Don'ts: Cab Driver Ripping You Off

    How to Avoid Being Rippped off by a Cab Driver

    Do...

    Know the estimated cost 
of your trip—and confirm it with the driver 
before you get in.

    Call your hotel or restaurant and ask someone to speak to your driver in his or her native language if it seems like you’re being taken for a ride.

    Don’t...

    Forget to note the medallion or license number and report the driver to the authorities if you suspect fraud.

    Pay with large bills, which invites the “I don’t have change” scam. Better to use small bills and coins in local currency.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: Missed Flight

    What to Do if You Missed Your Flight

    Do...

    Be prepared to pay a rebooking fee. For most classes of ticket, you’ll be charged to get on another flight.

    Make a run for it, if you’re already checked in and only have a carry-on. At some airports, gates close as late as 15 minutes before departure.

    Don’t...

    Wait to alert your airline. The sooner you call, the more likely they’ll be able to get you on the next flight—if there’s space.

    Expect to be rebooked on a different carrier. For that, you’ll have to purchase an entirely new ticket.

    —Melanie Lieberman

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: Noisy Hotel Neighbors

    How to Cope With Noisy Hotel Neighbors

    Do...

    ...call the manager on duty. He can dispatch security. He’ll also know when your rowdy floor mates are checking out.

    ...ask for earplugs. Most hotels expect some type of noise pollution, be it from tropical birds, traffic, or a wailing toddler.

    Don’t

    ...take matters into your own hands. You want the hotel to be involved early on in case the culprit is uncooperative.

    ...demand that other guests move for your sake. If you want a quieter space, expect to switch rooms yourself.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: What to do When You Order Wine You Don't Like

    What to Do When You Order Wine You Don't Like

    Do...

    ...speak up. A lot of customers feel intimidated by big wine lists and sommeliers, but it’s okay to trust your palate.

    ...snap a photo of the label and add it to an album of wines you’ve loved or loathed; use it to guide you on future selections.

    Don’t...

    ...judge too early. As the wine opens up, you might change your mind.

    ...suffer through a poor choice. The sommelier’s goal is for you to be happy with your selection.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: Aggressive Masseuse

    How to Cope With an Aggressive Masseuse

    Do...

    …lay down the law before the lights dim. Share your preferences, and if you’re ticklish or injured.

    …use body language. Raising your hand or finger tells your therapist to pause, and is less awkward than breaking the silence.

    Don’t...

    …leave things to chance. When booking, request a therapist with a lighter touch, or specify a gender.

    …be vague. Using a 1–10 scale will ensure the right pressure, e.g., 6 (moderate) rather than 9 (very intense).

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: Reckless Taxi Driver

    How to Cope With a Reckless Taxi Driver

    Do...

    …pay the fare. Your receipt may be helpful in reporting the driver. Tipping, however, is optional.

    …record the medallion or car number. Local authorities rely on passenger feedback to keep unsafe drivers off the streets.

    Don’t...

    …yell. Your driver is a professional. Phrase your complaint as a personal preference—not an attack.

    …stay in a cab if you feel unsafe. If your driver doesn’t respond to feedback, ask him to pull over and then find another ride.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: Overzealous Tour Member

    How to Cope With an Overzealous Tour Member

    Do...

    …book trips where multiple guides are present at all times. One is there to handle special situations just like this.

    …talk to your guide, not to the traveler in question. Guides are trained to handle a variety of personalities.

    Don’t...

    …isolate the individual. That will only make him more likely to further monopolize your guide’s attention.

    …be too quick to judge. As the group dynamic shakes out, needy travelers tend to settle down.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: Space-Hogging Seatmate

    How to Cope With a Space-Hogging Seatmate

    Do...

    …assert your territory early on: claim your overhead and under-seat space, and put the armrests down.

    …be sensitive about passengers of size. Alert your flight attendant discreetly; you may be able to switch seats.

    Don’t...

    …resort to dirty looks, or subtle little pushes. Being passive-aggressive only escalates the problem.

    …be greedy. Airplane etiquette says that the middle-seat passenger has rights to both inner armrests.

    –Nikki Ekstein

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: Hotel Bill Shock

    How to Deal with Hotel Bill Shock

    Do...

    …heed the warnings. If the hotel informed you of resort fees and the like, you share some of the blame.

    …play up your loyalty. Point out that you are a member of the hotel’s program, or a repeat customer.

    Don’t...

    …accept responsibility for fees buried in fine print. They should be clearly presented to guests.

    …be afraid to stand your ground. If the front desk can’t help, ask for the general manager or guest services director.

    —Amy Farley

  • How to Deal With Food Poisoning While Traveling

    Do...

    …ask the local pharmacist for a loperamide-based drug (like Imodium), to prevent dehydration.

    …seek medical attention if you experience signs of dehydration, such as dizziness or dry mouth.

    Don’t...

    …jump back to solid food. Start with electrolyte-fortified liquids (coconut water), then move on to rice and bananas.

    …kiss your entire vacation good-bye. Food poisoning usually subsides within two to four days.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: Make a Tight Flight Connection

    How to Make a Tight Flight Connection

    Do...

    …ask to be moved closer to the front of the cabin just before landing, so you can make a quick exit.

    …run straight to the gate for your connection—even if it’s past your departure time.

    Don’t...

    …despair. A flight won’t wait for one passenger, but system-wide delays might result in a lucky break.

    …book tight connections through large airports. Anything less than a 90-minute window is unrealistic.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: Damaged Hotel Room

    What to Do When You’ve Accidentally Damaged Your Hotel Room

    Do...

    …assess the mess. One that only requires cleanup costs less than one that calls for replacing broken furniture and fixtures.

    …fess up. The hotel will find out regardless—and you’ll want to be there to plead your case.

    Don’t...

    …fret if the damage is small and unintentional. Hotels will often let you go without penalty.

    …assume you can walk away scot-free. If the damage is major, you could be responsible for repairs and lost revenue.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: How to Photograph Locals

    How to Photograph Locals Without Offending Them

    Do...

    …ask for permission. If words fail, show your camera and wait for a reaction before shooting.

    …strike up a conversation. Compliment the subject’s family, ask a question, or share a laugh.

    Don’t...

    …push too hard. If the subject says no, find someone else to photograph.

    …try to be sneaky. You risk affronting someone who’d rather not be photographed.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: Inattentive Waiter

    How to Cope With an Inattentive Waiter

    Do...

    …get the attention of another waiter or waitress and ask for help tracking down your server.

    …ask for the manager. If you feel you are being ignored, it’s important to speak up.

    Don’t...

    …snap your fingers, wave your napkin in the air, or try to draw attention in any flagrant way.

    …assume it’s bad service. In some cultures it’s customary for guests to signal to waiters when they are ready for the check.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: How to Haggle

    How to Haggle

    Do...

    …determine what you’d like to pay. Ask trusted locals what they’d spend.

    …enjoy yourself. A sense of humor and patience are equally important.

    Don’t...

    …be afraid of lowballing. Make your starting offer at one-third of the price.

    …indicate how badly you want an item. Be willing to walk away, and you’ll almost always get a better deal.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: Snoring Seatmate

    How to Cope With a Snoring Seatmate

    Do...

    …ask for earplugs—most flight attendants will have them on hand.

    …rouse the snorer gently. A subtle trick: open an air vent.

    Don’t...

    …expect your flight attendant to wake anyone up. Each flier has the same right to rest.

    …feel trapped. If another seat is available, you may be able to move to a quieter spot.

    —Amy Farley

  • Travel Etiquette Do's and Don'ts: Pickpocketed

    What to Do When You’ve Been Pickpocketed

    Do...

    …find the nearest Western Union. You can get cash wired to you within the hour.

    …report a stolen passport to police and consular authorities; a replacement may be issued within 24 hours.

    Don’t...

    …expect a new bank or credit card to arrive immediately. It could take a few days to reach you abroad.

    …forget to cancel all cards immediately. Some card providers charge fees for fraudulent use.

    —Melanie Lieberman

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